This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
FOXP2 gene and language impairment in schizophrenia: association and epigenetic studies
© Tolosa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 7 February 2010
Accepted: 22 July 2010
Published: 22 July 2010
Schizophrenia is considered a language related human specific disease. Previous studies have reported evidence of positive selection for schizophrenia-associated genes specific to the human lineage. FOXP2 shows two important features as a convincing candidate gene for schizophrenia vulnerability: FOXP2 is the first gene related to a language disorder, and it has been subject to positive selection in the human lineage.
Twenty-seven SNPs of FOXP2 were genotyped in a cohort of 293 patients with schizophrenia and 340 controls. We analyzed in particular the association with the poverty of speech and the intensity of auditory hallucinations. Potential expansion of three trinucleotide repeats of FOXP2 was also screened in a subsample. Methylation analysis of a CpG island, located in the first exon of the gene, was performed in post-mortem brain samples, as well as qRT-PCR analysis.
A significant association was found between the SNP rs2253478 and the item Poverty of speech of the Manchester scale (p = 0.038 after Bonferroni correction). In patients, we detected higher degree of methylation in the left parahippocampus gyrus than in the right one.
FOXP2 might be involved in the language disorder in patients with schizophrenia. Epigenetic factors might be also implicated in the developing of this disorder.
It is widely accepted that neutral drift and Darwinian positive selection have played an important role in the evolution of human features. During the last few years, research has been focused on human genome-wide scans of adaptative evolving loci to search for specific modern characteristics in this species . Although most of them are related to fitness, it has been reported that some genes under positive selection in the human lineage can also confer vulnerability to some diseases [2–4].
Schizophrenia, which is considered as a disease related to the origin of Homo sapiens, could be a by-product of an adaptative process [3, 5, 6]. Previous reports have indicated a relationship between positively selected genes and schizophrenia. Crespi et al.  found signals of positive selection in 28 of 76 schizophrenia candidate genes that had been previously reported as positive results in association studies. Evidence of recent positive selection in the human lineage has also been found in haplotypes of MAOB and GABRB2 genes, which also confer an increased risk to schizophrenia [2, 4]. Furthermore, brain areas that are differentially dysregulated in schizophrenia include the regions most-notably subject to differential evolutionary change along the human lineage [7–9]. In addition, it has recently been suggested that metabolic processes altered in schizophrenia evolved at a higher rate in the human lineage, when compared with the chimpanzee .
A selective advantage could affect the achievement of specific human capacities, such as language. In this context, TJ Crow [9, 11], postulates that schizophrenia is the price that Homo sapiens had to pay for the acquisition of language. Moreover, recent neuroimaging studies report impairment in brain function relevant to language processing in individuals with schizophrenia and in those who are at a genetic risk for this disease .
First evidence for a gene involved in language was reported in 2001, when the FOXP2 gene was identified by Lai et al. . Identification of the transcriptional targets of FOXP2 revealed that this protein could regulate genes involved in development and function of the brain, genes under positive selection in human lineage and genes associated to schizophrenia . Apart from the polyglutamine tracts, the human protein only differs in three amino acids from its ortholog in mouse, and two of these changes occurred in the human lineage after separation from the common ancestor shared with chimpanzees. Both changes are fixed in human populations, and there is evidence to support they have been under positive selection [15, 16].
Association studies between FOXP2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to different pathologies of language impairment, such as specific language impairment, dyslexia or autism have not produced robust results , but the identification of two coding mutations related to verbal dyspraxia . Nevertheless there are strong evidence of the importance of the gene in development and some aspects of language  including the fact that CNTNAP2, a downstream target of FOXP2 has been related also to language disorders [20, 21]. In schizophrenia, preliminary association studies have delivered controversial results [22–24]. To the best of our knowledge, no methylation study of FOXP2 has previously been done.
We hypothesized that FOXP2 could be considered a candidate gene that may confer vulnerability to schizophrenia or to the language related symptoms of this disorder. To test this hypothesis, two different analyses were carried out: 1) an association study between FOXP2 polymorphisms and schizophrenia and 2) the study of the methylation status of the FOXP2 promoter in different areas of the brain in patients and controls.
Association study participants
For the association study, 293 patients and 340 healthy unrelated controls were analyzed. All patients and controls were Caucasians of Spanish descent. Exclusion criteria included organic brain syndromes, mental retardation, severe drug abuse, or inability to understand simple questions. Participants with previous psychiatric treatment were excluded as controls.
There were no significant differences in sex or age for both groups. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia. The Manchester scale , and the psychotic symptom rating scale (PSYRATS) , were used respectively, to assess the clinical psychotic symptoms, with particular attention to the Poverty of speech item, and the intensity of auditory hallucinations. The mean Manchester score was 8.79 (SD = 5.56) and mean PSYRATS score was 16.26 (SD = 23.26). This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. All patients signed the informed consent form.
Post-mortem human brain samples
For methylation and expression analyses, human brain samples were kindly donated by the London Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain Bank at the Institute of Psychiatry. Grey tissue from both hemispheres of the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampus gyrus and cingulate gyrus was obtained. For methylation analyses, one sample for each region was analyzed for both patients and controls. For expression analyses, 13 samples from patients (6 from the right hemisphere and 7 from the left hemisphere) and 12 samples from controls (9 from the right and 3 from the left hemisphere) were analyzed.
Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes by the Puregene kit (Gentra Systems, MN, USA).
A total of 27 polymorphisms were analyzed, 10 of them by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and 17 by an iPLEX genotyping assay (Sequenom, CA, USA). Details of the primer sequences, PCR conditions and restriction enzymes are described in Additional files 1 and 2.
Three regions were screened for potential trinucleotide expansions: two polyQ tracts of 40 and 10 residues, located respectively in exons 5 and 6 of FOXP2, and a CGG-rich region in intron s1 close to the transcription start site. Primers flanking the three regions were designed (see Additional file 1). One primer in each pair was 5'-labeled with 6-FAM or HEX fluorophores. Fluorescent amplicons were electrophoresed with internal lane size standards in an ABI PRISM® 3700 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems Inc.) and length of fragments was analyzed with the GeneScan-v3.7 (Applied Biosystems, Inc.).
Statistical and genetic analyses were performed using Haploview v4.1, UNPHASED 3.10, and SSPS v13 software. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple tests. For the haplotype association study, four marker sliding-windows were used, with the exception of a five marker haplotype, for which association had been detected in a previous study .
DNA from brain samples was extracted using a Nucleon® Genomic DNA Extraction Kit (Tepnel Life Sciences). DNA from leukocyte samples was extracted using the Puregene kit (Gentra Systems).
DNA was fragmented with EcoRI (New England Biolabs) prior to overnight digestion with Proteinase K (Sigma Aldrich). DNA was cleaned, purified and concentrated using a Qiaex II kit (Qiagen). The processed DNA samples were treated with either the CpGenome™ DNA Modification Kit (Chemicon® International) or the EpiTect Bisulfite Kit (Qiagen) in accordance with the supplier's guidelines.
DNA was amplified with specific primers for bisulphite-converted DNA (see Additional file 1). PCR fragments were cloned into the PCR 2.1 vector using the TOPO cloning kit (Invitrogen), or pGEM-T® vector using the pGEM-T® Easy Vector System (Promega), and sequenced with T7 and SP6 universal primers.
Total RNA was extracted with the RNeasy Lipid Tissue Mini Kit (Qiagen). Reverse transcription of 1 μg of RNA was performed using SuperScriptTM III Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen) and random primer hexanucleotides (Promega).
Quantitative RT-PCR was performed in triplicate for each sample on an iCycler iQ Real Time PCR System (Qiagen) with Power SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) using a standard protocol. Specific cDNA primers for FOXP2 and RPII, used as a control gene, were designed. Sequences and PCR conditions are shown in Additional file 1. The comparative CT method (ΔΔCT) was used to measure the relative gene expression.
First, we conducted the single SNP association analysis. When all patients were included, we observed a significant association for the SNP rs10447760 at allelic frequencies, although this association did not remain after applying the conservative Bonferroni correction. When comparing patients with auditory hallucinations versus controls (see Additional file 5), significant associations were found for SNP rs2396753 and SNP rs17137124. However, after Bonferroni correction, the significant associations were also lost.
Finally, when patients with auditory hallucinations were compared with patients without hallucinations (see Additional file 6), a significant association was found for SNP rs2253478 and SNP rs1456031 in genotypic frequencies and for SNP rs2396753 in both, genotypic and allelic frequencies. However, once again, after Bonferroni correction, the significance disappeared in all cases.
Next, we carried out the haplotypic association analysis. Tests of four marker haplotypes did not provide evidence of significant associations with schizophrenia or auditory hallucinations. However, when we took into account the five marker haplotype which was found to be significant in a previous study , positive results were detected for the same combination of alleles: rs7803667T/rs10447760C/rs923875A/rs2396722C/rs2396753A (χ2 = 6.479; p = 0.0109). Interestingly, this combination of alleles was found more frequent in controls than in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations.
Linear regression was performed to evaluate the association between the SNPs and the items of the PSYRATS and Manchester scales. After Bonferroni correction was applied, only association between SNP rs2253478 and the Poverty of speech was maintained (p corrected = 0.038).
With regard to the analyses of potential expansions of trinucleotide tracts of FOXP2, no variation was found in any of these regions in our sample. Only a single deletion of three trinucleotides at the CGG-rich region in intron s1 was identified in heterozygosis in a patient with schizophrenia.
In this study we investigated the role of FOXP2, a positively selected gene, in schizophrenia vulnerability. A SNP association study, with particular attention to language related symptoms as auditory hallucinations and poverty of speech, and a study of DNA methylation and expression of this gene were carried out.
The most important finding of this study is the significant association showed between the rs2253478 SNP and the item of Poverty of speech of the Manchester scale (p = 0.038 after Bonferroni correction). This polymorphism is located in intron s3, not close to any of the promoter regions. There is no information that it could be an enhancer of splicing element. Its potential functionality has not been yet investigated, and then it is difficult to determine the biological significance of this association. Alternatively it could be in linkage disequilibrium with another polymorphism being the causative factor. In any case, our results relate the FOXP2 gene to one of the characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia, deficits in the language domain [27–29].
On the other hand, the haplotypic analysis confirmed our previous results that the rs7803667T/rs10447760C/rs923875A/rs2396722C/rs2396753A haplotype could be a protective one with respect to auditory hallucinations .
It has been suggested that specific language-related circuits are affected in patients with schizophrenia . Therefore, it is reasonable to look for risk alleles to schizophrenia vulnerability in FOXP2, a gene for which an implication in the development of language is well accepted [13, 30]. Nevertheless, schizophrenia is a biological entity not well defined, indicative of a phenotype too much complex for genetic analysis, which partially explains the difficulty to find the causative genetic factors. At this point, the study of language variables in order to find risk alleles in schizophrenia becomes a good alternative with respect to endophenotype approaches. Our results support this hypothesis, since significant results were found when we related language impairment in schizophrenic patients to FOXP2 polymorphisms.
In this work, we also analyzed whether the polyQ stretches at exons 5 and 6 of FOXP2 are polymorphic and if so, determine its potential association with schizophrenia vulnerability. Expansions in the number of trinucleotides repeats are frequently associated with neurodegenerative diseases . However, no variation in the number of glutamines was found in our sample. This high stability is concordant with previous studies in controls, individuals with progressive movement disorders, and schizophrenic patients [32, 33]. The role of the polyQ tracts in the FOXP2 gene is unknown. In fact, most of the members of the FOX family lack this domain. Nevertheless, the high invariability of these sequences suggests that they could be under functional constraints.
In addition to schizophrenia vulnerability due to variations in the DNA sequence, epigenetic factors regulating gene expression have also been suggested as a potential etiological mechanism in psychosis [34, 35]. Epigenetic regulation has been increasingly associated with psychiatric disorders, with examples in depression and addiction [36, 37].
In our study of DNA methylation of FOXP2 exon s1 region, we found a higher degree of methylation in the left hemisphere of the parahippocampus gyrus region in patients than in controls. From these results, we would have expected lower gene expression of FOXP2 due to repression by methylation. However, no differences were found in FOXP2 expression between controls and patients. This discrepancy could be explained by the fact that only a stretch of the CpG island, located in exon s1, was analyzed for methylation. The promoter region of the FOXP2 gene has not been well defined, and regulation of the gene is more complex than was initially thought (non published personal data, ). The finding that expression data show a trend of more expression in patients than in controls would indicate that a decrease of neural processes controlled by the protein FOXP2, a repressor of transcription, is produced in patients. Hippocampal and parahippocampal volume reduction is one of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia . Moreover, in a meta-analysis of brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia, hippocampal reduction was the largest difference between relatives and healthy controls . These findings suggest hippocampal volume as a potential end of phenotype for genetic studies in schizophrenia.
Our study has some limitations. First, the language skills evaluated in this work include only two items of the Manchester scale. Since the strongest result is related to one of these items, we would recommend a systematic exploration of language variables in schizophrenic patients. Therefore, it would be valuable to explore different aspects of language in future studies. Second, we have used a small sample in the methylation and expression analyses so further studies with a larger sample would be necessary in order to confirm our preliminary results. Finally, other variables which could affect methylation, such as medication or age, should be considered. In spite of these limitations, this study suggests the use of the language related disorder as alternative phenotypes in schizophrenia for genetic studies. On the other hand, although the results are not conclusive, this is the first epigenetic study of FOXP2 in schizophrenia, opening a new way in which this gene could be related to this disorder.
Our results do not support the involvement of FOXP2 in the vulnerability to schizophrenia as a global syndrome. Nevertheless, this gene might be implicated in schizophrenia through its role in language impairment. Epigenetic mechanisms affecting the expression of FOXP2 might contribute to the development of schizophrenia and related neurodevelopmental disorders.
This work was supported by ISCIII, PI05/2332, and CIBERSAM.
- Sabeti PC, Varilly P, Fry B, Lohmueller J, Hostetter E, Cotsapas C, Xie X, Byrne EH, McCarroll SA, Gaudet R, et al: Genome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations. Nature. 2007, 449: 913-918. 10.1038/nature06250.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Carrera N, Sanjuan J, Molto MD, Carracedo A, Costas J: Recent adaptive selection at MAOB and ancestral susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009, 150B: 369-374. 10.1002/ajmg.b.30823.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crespi B, Summers K, Dorus S: Adaptive evolution of genes underlying schizophrenia. Proc Biol Sci. 2007, 274: 2801-2810. 10.1098/rspb.2007.0876.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lo WS, Xu Z, Yu Z, Pun FW, Ng SK, Chen J, Tong KL, Zhao C, Xu X, Tsang SY, et al: Positive selection within the Schizophrenia-associated GABA(A) receptor beta2 gene. PLoS ONE. 2007, 2: e462-10.1371/journal.pone.0000462.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dean B: Is schizophrenia the price of human central nervous system complexity?. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009, 43: 13-24. 10.1080/00048670802534416.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pearlson GD, Folley BS: Schizophrenia, psychiatric genetics, and Darwinian psychiatry: an evolutionary framework. Schizophr Bull. 2008, 34: 722-733. 10.1093/schbul/sbm130.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brune M: Schizophrenia-an evolutionary enigma?. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2004, 28: 41-53. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.10.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burns J: The social brain hypothesis of schizophrenia. World Psychiatry. 2006, 5: 77-81.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Crow TJ: Schizophrenia as the price that homo sapiens pays for language: a resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2000, 31: 118-129. 10.1016/S0165-0173(99)00029-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khaitovich P, Lockstone HE, Wayland MT, Tsang TM, Jayatilaka SD, Guo AJ, Zhou J, Somel M, Harris LW, Holmes E, et al: Metabolic changes in schizophrenia and human brain evolution. Genome Biol. 2008, 9: R124-10.1186/gb-2008-9-8-r124.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Crow TJ: The 'big bang' theory of the origin of psychosis and the faculty of language. Schizophr Res. 2008, 102: 31-52. 10.1016/j.schres.2008.03.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Branch CA, Delisi LE: Language pathway abnormalities in schizophrenia: a review of fMRI and other imaging studies. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009, 22: 131-139. 10.1097/YCO.0b013e328324bc43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lai CS, Fisher SE, Hurst JA, Vargha-Khadem F, Monaco AP: A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature. 2001, 413: 519-523. 10.1038/35097076.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vernes SC, Spiteri E, Nicod J, Groszer M, Taylor JM, Davies KE, Geschwind DH, Fisher SE: High-throughput analysis of promoter occupancy reveals direct neural targets of FOXP2, a gene mutated in speech and language disorders. Am J Hum Genet. 2007, 81: 1232-1250. 10.1086/522238.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Enard W, Przeworski M, Fisher SE, Lai CS, Wiebe V, Kitano T, Monaco AP, Paabo S: Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature. 2002, 418: 869-872. 10.1038/nature01025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Webb DM, Podlaha O: Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example. Genetics. 2002, 162: 1825-1835.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fisher SE: Tangled webs: tracing the connections between genes and cognition. Cognition. 2006, 101: 270-297. 10.1016/j.cognition.2006.04.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- MacDermot KD, Bonora E, Sykes N, Coupe AM, Lai CS, Vernes SC, Vargha-Khadem F, McKenzie F, Smith RL, Monaco AP, et al: Identification of FOXP2 truncation as a novel cause of developmental speech and language deficits. Am J Hum Genet. 2005, 76: 1074-1080. 10.1086/430841.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Newbury DF, Fisher SE, Monaco AP: Recent advances in the genetics of language impairment. Genome Med. 2010, 2: 6-10.1186/gm127.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Vernes SC, Newbury DF, Abrahams BS, Winchester L, Nicod J, Groszer M, Alarcón M, Oliver PL, Davies KE, Geschwind DH, et al: A functional genetic link between distinct developmental language disorders. N Engl J Med. 2008, 359: 2337-2345. 10.1056/NEJMoa0802828.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Poot M, Beyer V, Schwaab I, Damatova N, Van't Slot R, Prothero J, Holder SE, Haaf T: Disruption of CNTNAP2 and additional structural genome changes in a boy with speech delay and autism spectrum disorder. Neurogenetics. 2010, 11: 81-89. 10.1007/s10048-009-0205-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jung SM, Jung BJ, Cho JS, Park JM: FOXP2 gene possibly associated with Korean schizophrenic patients. European Neuropsychopharmacology. The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008, 18: S4-10.1016/S0924-977X(08)70004-X.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sanjuan J, Tolosa A, Gonzalez JC, Aguilar EJ, Molto MD, Najera C, de Frutos R: FOXP2 polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2005, 73: 253-256. 10.1016/j.schres.2004.05.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sanjuan J, Tolosa A, Gonzalez JC, Aguilar EJ, Perez-Tur J, Najera C, Molto MD, de Frutos R: Association between FOXP2 polymorphisms and schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Psychiatr Genet. 2006, 16: 67-72. 10.1097/01.ypg.0000185029.35558.bb.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krawiecka M, Goldberg D, Vaughan M: A standardized psychiatric assessment scale for rating chronic psychotic patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1977, 55: 299-308. 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1977.tb00174.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haddock G, McCarron J, Tarrier N, Faragher EB: Scales to measure dimensions of hallucinations and delusions: the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS). Psychol Med. 1999, 29: 879-889. 10.1017/S0033291799008661.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Covington MA, He C, Brown C, Naci L, McClain JT, Fjordbak BS, Semple J, Brown J: Schizophrenia and the structure of language: the linguist's view. Schizophr Res. 2005, 77: 85-98. 10.1016/j.schres.2005.01.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Delisi LE: Speech disorder in schizophrenia: review of the literature and exploration of its relation to the uniquely human capacity for language. Schizophr Bull. 2001, 27: 481-496.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McKenna PJ, Oh T: Schizophrenic speech. 2005, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
- Watkins KE, Dronkers NF, Vargha-Khadem F: Behavioural analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: comparison with acquired aphasia. Brain. 2002, 125: 452-464. 10.1093/brain/awf058.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Margolis RL, Abraham MR, Gatchell SB, Li SH, Kidwai AS, Breschel TS, Stine OC, Callahan C, McInnis MG, Ross CA: cDNAs with long CAG trinucleotide repeats from human brain. Hum Genet. 1997, 100: 114-122. 10.1007/s004390050476.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bruce HA, Margolis RL: FOXP2: novel exons, splice variants, and CAG repeat length stability. Hum Genet. 2002, 111: 136-144. 10.1007/s00439-002-0768-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laroche F, Ramoz N, Leroy S, Fortin C, Rousselot-Paillet B, Philippe A, Colleaux L, Bresson JL, Mogenet A, Golse B, et al: Polymorphisms of coding trinucleotide repeats of homeogenes in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. Psychiatr Genet. 2008, 18: 295-301. 10.1097/YPG.0b013e3283060fa5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato C, Petronis A, Okazaki Y, Tochigi M, Umekage T, Sasaki T: Molecular genetic studies of schizophrenia: challenges and insights. Neurosci Res. 2002, 43: 295-304. 10.1016/S0168-0102(02)00064-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petronis A: The origin of schizophrenia: genetic thesis, epigenetic antithesis, and resolving synthesis. Biol Psychiatry. 2004, 55: 965-970. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.02.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mill J, Tang T, Kaminsky Z, Khare T, Yazdanpanah S, Bouchard L, Jia P, Assadzadeh A, Flanagan J, Schumacher A, et al: Epigenomic profiling reveals DNA-methylation changes associated with major psychosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2008, 82: 696-711. 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.008.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tsankova N, Renthal W, Kumar A, Nestler EJ: Epigenetic regulation in psychiatric disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007, 8: 355-367. 10.1038/nrn2132.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schroeder DI, Myers RM: Multiple transcription start sites for FOXP2 with varying cellular specificities. Gene. 2008, 413: 42-48. 10.1016/j.gene.2008.01.015.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vita A, De Peri L, Silenzi C, Dieci M: Brain morphology in first-episode schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging studies. Schizophr Res. 2006, 82: 75-88. 10.1016/j.schres.2005.11.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boos HB, Aleman A, Cahn W, Hulshoff PH, Kahn RS: Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007, 64: 297-304. 10.1001/archpsyc.64.3.297.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/11/114/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.