Biochemical characterization of the classic MSUD murine model. A, BCKDH enzyme activity in liver of newborn wild type control (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and homozygous (-/-) knockout mice. Enzyme activity was significantly reduced in +/- liver compared to +/+, and was below the level of detection in -/- liver. B, Total BCAA concentrations in blood of mice. Total BCAA represent the sum of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Total BCAA concentrations in blood from -/- mice were significantly elevated compared to +/+ and +/-. C, Ratio of total BCAA to alanine in blood of mice. This ratio was significantly elevated in -/- mice compared to +/+ and +/- mice. The numbers on the bars indicates the number of mice analyzed. *, Significantly different from +/+ (P < 0.001); **, significantly different from +/+ and +/- (P < 0.001).