Oligonucleotide encompassing c.-22 formed DNA-protein complex detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) . A) The radiolabeled oligonucleotide probes containing c.-22T or c.-22C of the GALK1 gene were incubated with Hep3B nuclear extract. When c.-22C was used as a probe, increasing amounts of cold competitors (1, 2, and 5 pmol of c.-22C and c.-22T) or anti-HEN1 antibody were included as indicated. The DNA-protein complex is indicated with an arrow. B) The intensity of the DNA-protein complex in the absence and presence of cold probes, c-22T (□) and c.-22C (■), was measured using ImageJ. The graph represents means and standard deviations of three independent experiments taking the intensity of DNA-protein complex without competitor as 100%.