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Clinical-Molecular Genetics and Cytogenetics

This section considers studies of the structure and function of genes and chromosomes, with relation to human health and disease and the role of genetic mutations and cytogenetic changes in human genetic disorders.

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  1. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a clinical manifestation featured by velvety brown plaques in skin folds that occurs in some hereditary and syndromic disorders. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations ...

    Authors: Junling Fu, Yiting Zhao, Tong Wang, Qian Zhang and Xinhua Xiao

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2019 20:8

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS MS) and simple fluorometric assays are currently used in newborn screening programs to detect inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical u...

    Authors: Wenjie Wang, Jianping Yang, Jinjie Xue, Wenjuan Mu, Xiaogang Zhang, Wang Wu, Mengnan Xu, Yuyan Gong, Yiqian Liu, Yu Zhang, Xiaobing Xie, Weiyue Gu, Jigeng Bai and David S. Cram

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2019 20:3

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a rare, multisystemic disorder, has been linked to genetic alterations in NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8, and RAD21 genes. Approximately 60% of CdLS patients harbor various NIPBL var...

    Authors: Natalia Krawczynska, Jolanta Wierzba, Jacek Jasiecki and Bartosz Wasag

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2019 20:1

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive lysosomal disorder caused by deficient enzymatic activity of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A). The insufficient enzymatic activity leads to excessive accumulation of glycosphi...

    Authors: Chi Zhou, Jin Huang, Guanglin Cui, Hesong Zeng, Dao Wen Wang and Qiang Zhou

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:219

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is a common condition associated with high mortality. It is predominantly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with reduced penetrance and variable expressio...

    Authors: Wenwen Zhang, Qian Han, Zhao Liu, Wei Zhou, Qing Cao and Weimin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:218

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Dwarfism is a common severe growth disorder, but the etiology is unclear in the majority of cases. Recombinant human growth hormone may be a treatment option, but it has limited efficacy. The currently known l...

    Authors: Lulu Yang, Chenhui Zhang, Wei Wang, Junqi Wang, Yuan Xiao, Wenli Lu, Xiaoyu Ma, Lifen Chen, Jihong Ni, Defen Wang, Jinxiu Shi and Zhiya Dong

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:212

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, while non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) is a common benign ...

    Authors: Weijuan Su, Xiulin Shi, Mingzhu Lin, Caoxin Huang, Liying Wang, Haiqu Song, Yanzhen Zhuang, Haifang Zhang, Nanzhu Li and Xuejun Li

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:211

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is an X-linked recessive disorder involving a defect in the urea cycle caused by OTC gene mutations. Although a total of 417 disease-causing mutations in OTC have been...

    Authors: Katsuyuki Yokoi, Yoko Nakajima, Hidehito Inagaki, Makiko Tsutsumi, Tetsuya Ito and Hiroki Kurahashi

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:210

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a common recessive X-linked hereditary disease that affects the development of ectoderm. Gene mutations of ectodysplasin A (EDA) play key roles in process of this dis...

    Authors: Fangqi He, Hongfeng Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qingping Gao, Feng Guo and Chang Chen

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:209

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and/or thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is characterized by a considerable risk of morbidity and mortality of affected individuals. It is inherited in an autosomal ...

    Authors: Anna Keravnou, Evy Bashiardes, Kyriaki Michailidou, Marinos Soteriou, Areti Moushi and Marios Cariolou

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:208

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome, and VHL is identified as a tumor suppressor gene. The main objective of this study was to identify disease-causing mutations in ...

    Authors: Xing Wu, Lanlan Chen, Yixin Zhang, Hainan Xie, Meirong Xue, Yi Wang and Houbin Huang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:204

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Genetic defects in the mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase are important causes of mitochondrial disorders. VARS2 is one of the genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Recently, an increasing number of pat...

    Authors: Keze Ma, Mingyu Xie, Xiaoguang He, Guojun Liu, Xiaomei Lu, Qi Peng, Baimao Zhong and Ning Li

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:202

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with significant phenotypic variability. More than 53 podocyte-expressed genes are implicated in SRNS which complicates the ro...

    Authors: Annes Siji, K. N. Karthik, Varsha Chhotusing Pardeshi, P. S. Hari and Anil Vasudevan

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:200

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic renal disorder in humans, affecting 1 in 400 to 1000 individuals. Mutations PKD1 (which accounts for 85% of ADPKD and produces pol...

    Authors: Peiwen Xu, Sexing Huang, Jie Li, Yang Zou, Ming Gao, Ranran Kang, Junhao Yan, Xuan Gao and Yuan Gao

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:198

    Content type: Case report

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  15. TRRAP encodes a multidomain protein kinase that works as a genetic cofactor to influence DNA methylation patterns, DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling. TRRAP protein is vital to early neural developmental...

    Authors: Chrystal F. Mavros, Catherine A. Brownstein, Roshni Thyagrajan, Casie A. Genetti, Sahil Tembulkar, Kelsey Graber, Quinn Murphy, Kristin Cabral, Grace E. VanNoy, Matthew Bainbridge, Jiahai Shi, Pankaj B. Agrawal, Alan H. Beggs, Eugene D’Angelo and Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:197

    Content type: Case report

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  16. IARS2 encodes a mitochondrial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, a highly conserved nuclear-encoded enzyme required for the charging of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid for translation. Recently, pathogenic IARS2 vari...

    Authors: Barbara Vona, Reza Maroofian, Emanuele Bellacchio, Maryam Najafi, Kyle Thompson, Ahmad Alahmad, Langping He, Najmeh Ahangari, Abolfazl Rad, Sima Shahrokhzadeh, Paulina Bahena, Falk Mittag, Frank Traub, Jebrail Movaffagh, Nafise Amiri, Mohammad Doosti…

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:196

    Content type: Research article

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  17. To describe the clinical phenotype and genetic cause underlying the disease pathology in a pedigree (affected n = 9) with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS1) due to a novel RS1 mutation and to assess suitability for n...

    Authors: Kirk Stephenson, Adrian Dockery, Niamh Wynne, Matthew Carrigan, Paul Kenna, G. Jane Farrar and David Keegan

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:195

    Content type: Research article

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  18. X-linked creatine transporter deficiency (OMIM#300036,CRTR-D) is characterized by cerebral creatine deficiency, intellectual disabilities, severe speech impairment, seizures and behavioral problems. Mutations ...

    Authors: Qin Wang, Jingxin Yang, Yang Liu, Xingping Li, Fuwei Luo and Jiansheng Xie

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:193

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which genetics plays a key aetiological role. The gene encoding NAD(P)H steroid dehydrogenase-like protein (NSDHL) is expressed in developing cor...

    Authors: Chun-Chun Hu, Yun-Jun Sun, Chun-xue Liu, Bing-rui Zhou, Chun-yang Li, Qiong Xu and Xiu Xu

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:192

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary syndrome characterised by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous colonic polyps during the second decade of life. FAP i...

    Authors: Hoa Giang, Vu T Nguyen, Sinh D Nguyen, Huu-Phuc Nguyen, Binh T Vo, Truc M Nguyen, Nguyen H Nguyen, Kiet D Truong, Thanh-Thuy T Do, Minh-Duy Phan and Hoai-Nghia Nguyen

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:188

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the commonest inherited kidney disease, is generally caused by heterozygous mutations in PKD1, PKD2, or GANAB (PKD3).

    Authors: Wen-Bin He, Wen-Juan Xiao, Yue-Qiu Tan, Xiao-Meng Zhao, Wen Li, Qian-Jun Zhang, Chang-Gao Zhong, Xiu-Rong Li, Liang Hu, Guang-Xiu Lu, Ge Lin and Juan Du

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:186

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, meaning patients would benefit from different treatment strategies based on their molecular stratification. In recent years, several genomic studies have identified ...

    Authors: Yi Ma, Lijie He, Qianwen Huang, Shuang Zheng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Hongshi Li and Shuang Liu

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:185

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Mucopolysaccharidosis-IVA (Morquio A disease) is a lysosomal disorder in which the abnormal accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate is consequent to mutations in the galactosamine-6-sulfatase (G...

    Authors: Anna Caciotti, Rodolfo Tonin, Matthew Mort, David N. Cooper, Serena Gasperini, Miriam Rigoldi, Rossella Parini, Federica Deodato, Roberta Taurisano, Michelina Sibilio, Giancarlo Parenti, Renzo Guerrini and Amelia Morrone

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:183

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Distal arthrogryposis (DA) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that involve multiple congenital limb contractures and comprise at least 10 clinical subtypes. Here, we describe our ...

    Authors: Shan Li, Yi You, Jinsong Gao, Bin Mao, Yixuan Cao, Xiuli Zhao and Xue Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:179

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Gaucher disease is a rare pan-ethnic disorder which occurs due to an increased accumulation of undegraded glycolipid glucocerebroside inside the cells’ lysosomes. A beta-Glucosidase (GBA) gene defect results in g...

    Authors: Jayesh Sheth, Dhairya Pancholi, Mehul Mistri, Payal Nath, Chitra Ankleshwaria, Riddhi Bhavsar, Ratna Puri, Shubha Phadke and Frenny Sheth

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:178

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCLs) are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by seizures, motor impairment, and loss of vision. Ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN) gene mutations are the cause, but NCL cases ar...

    Authors: Guilian Sun, Fang Yao, Zhuoling Tian, Tianjiao Ma and Zhiliang Yang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:177

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Hereditary cancer screening (HCS) for germline variants in the 3′ exons of PMS2, a mismatch repair gene implicated in Lynch syndrome, is technically challenging due to homology with its pseudogene PMS2CL. Sequenc...

    Authors: Genevieve M Gould, Peter V Grauman, Mark R Theilmann, Lindsay Spurka, Irving E Wang, Laura M Melroy, Robert G Chin, Dustin H Hite, Clement S Chu, Jared R Maguire, Gregory J Hogan and Dale Muzzey

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:176

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas in any organ systems. Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene lead to the dysfunction of hamartin or tuberin proteins, whi...

    Authors: Ruixiao Zhang, Jianhong Wang, Qing Wang, Yue Han, Xuejun Liu, Irene Bottillo, Yanhua Lang and Leping Shao

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:173

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare multisystemic disorder characterized by vascular and skeletal abnormalities, with considerable intra- and interfamilial variability.

    Authors: Anwar Baban, Monia Magliozzi, Bart Loeys, Rachele Adorisio, Viola Alesi, Aurelio Secinaro, Bernadette Corica, Luca Vricella, Harry C. Dietz, Fabrizio Drago, Antonio Novelli and Antonio Amodeo

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:170

    Content type: Case report

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  30. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare organic aciduria neurometabolic disease that is inherited as an autosomal recessive mode and have a variety of symptoms, such as psychomotor developmental retar...

    Authors: Wei Peng, Xiu-Wei Ma, Xiao Yang, Wan-Qiao Zhang, Lei Yan, Yong-Xia Wang, Xin Liu, Yan Wang and Zhi-Chun Feng

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:167

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome (MCTO) is characterized by progressive destruction and disappearance of the carpal and tarsal bones associated with nephropathy. MCTO is caused by loss-of-function ...

    Authors: Peong Gang Park, Kee Hyuck Kim, Hye Sun Hyun, Chan Hee Lee, Jin-Su Park, Jeong Hae Kie, Young Hun Choi, Kyung Chul Moon and Hae Il Cheong

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:164

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Mucolipidosis alpha/beta is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficiency of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, in which essential alpha/beta subunits are encoded by the GNPTAB gene. The autosomal recessive...

    Authors: Chi-Chun Ho, Lilian Li-Yan Tsung, Kam-Tim Liu and Wing-Tat Poon

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:162

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Cockayne Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurological and sensorial impairment, dwarfism, microcephaly and photosensitivity. CS is caused by mutations in ERCC6 (CSB) or ERCC8...

    Authors: Alain Chebly, Sandra Corbani, Joelle Abou Ghoch, Cybel Mehawej, André Megarbane and Eliane Chouery

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:161

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Autosomal recessive anophthalmia and microphthalmia are rare developmental eye defects occurring during early fetal development. Syndromic and non-syndromic forms of anophthalmia and microphthalmia demonstrate...

    Authors: Siying Lin, Gaurav V. Harlalka, Abdul Hameed, Hadia Moattar Reham, Muhammad Yasin, Noor Muhammad, Saadullah Khan, Emma L. Baple, Andrew H. Crosby and Shamim Saleha

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:160

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Mutations in the X-linked gene filamin A (FLNA), encoding the actin-binding protein FLNA, cause a wide spectrum of connective tissue, skeletal, cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal manifestations. Males are typ...

    Authors: Elyssa Cannaerts, Anju Shukla, Mensuda Hasanhodzic, Maaike Alaerts, Dorien Schepers, Lut Van Laer, Katta M. Girisha, Iva Hojsak, Bart Loeys and Aline Verstraeten

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:140

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Scientists have previously described an overgrowth syndrome in Saudi patients and named it ‘Upper limb muscle overgrowth with hypoplasia of the index finger’ syndrome.

    Authors: Mohammad M. Al-Qattan, Ali Hadadi, Abdullah M. Al-Thunayan, Ahmed A. Eldali and Mohammed A. AlBalwi

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:158

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Many X-linked non-syndromic hearing loss (HL) cases are caused by various mutations in the POU domain class 3 transcription factor 4 (POU3F4) gene. This study aimed to identify allelic variants of this gene in tw...

    Authors: Yu Su, Xue Gao, Sha-Sha Huang, Jing-Ning Mao, Bang-Qing Huang, Jian-Dong Zhao, Dong-Yang Kang, Xin Zhang and Pu Dai

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:157

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Larsen syndrome is a hereditary disorder characterized by osteochondrodysplasia, congenital large-joint dislocations, and craniofacial abnormalities. The autosomal dominant type is caused by mutations in the g...

    Authors: N. Riise, B. R. Lindberg, M. A. Kulseth, S. O. Fredwall, R. Lundby, M.-E. Estensen, L. Drolsum, E. Merckoll, K. Krohg-Sørensen and B. Paus

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:155

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is a hereditary neurocutaneous syndrome that is non-progressive in nature. Although neuroregression has been reported in seizure-prone preschool children requiring anti-epileptic treat...

    Authors: Kye Hee Cho, Sung Han Shim, Youngsoo Jung, Se Ra Sung and MinYoung Kim

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:152

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the most common autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children. Clinical manifestations include progressive cognitive decline, motor impairment, ataxia, v...

    Authors: Anastasiya Aleksandrovna Kozina, Elena Grigorievna Okuneva, Natalia Vladimirovna Baryshnikova, Anna Yurievna Krasnenko, Kirill Yurievich Tsukanov, Olesya Igorevna Klimchuk, Olga Borisovna Kondakova, Anna Nikolaevna Larionova, Tatyana Timofeevna Batysheva, Ekaterina Ivanovna Surkova, Peter Alekseevich Shatalov and Valery Vladimirovich Ilinsky

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:151

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Congenital cataract, a kind of cataract presenting at birth or during early childhood, is a leading cause of childhood blindness. To date, more than 30 genes on different chromosomes are known to cause this di...

    Authors: Zongfu Cao, Yihua Zhu, Lijuan Liu, Shuangqing Wu, Bing Liu, Jianfu Zhuang, Yi Tong, Xiaole Chen, Yongqing Xie, Kaimei Nie, Cailing Lu, Xu Ma and Juhua Yang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:150

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) induced by malignant ventricular tachycardia (MVT) among young adults with right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a devastating event. Parts of ARVC/D patients have a...

    Authors: Yubi Lin, Jiana Huang, Siqi He, Ruiling Feng, ZhiAn Zhong, Yang Liu, Weitao Ye, Xin Li, Hongtao Liao, Hongwen Fei, Fang Rao, Zhixin Shan, Chunyu Deng, Xianzhang Zhan, Yumei Xue, Hui Liu…

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:148

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Mutations in INF2 are frequently responsible for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), which is a common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD); additionally, they are also connected with Charcot-Marie-Toot...

    Authors: Marketa Safarikova, Jitka Stekrova, Eva Honsova, Vera Horinova, Vladimir Tesar and Jana Reiterova

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:147

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Thalassemias (TM) are the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Southeast Asian countries. Both α- and β-thalassemia lead to a decrease or absence of globin chains. The most serious of the thalassemia s...

    Authors: Liangying Zhong, Xin Gan, Lingling Xu, Chujia Liang, Yingjun Xie, Wenbin Lin, Peisong Chen and Min Liu

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:145

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder that is characterized by decreased serum uric acid concentration and increased fractional excretion of uric acid. Previous reports have revealed ma...

    Authors: Zhaowei Zhou, Lidan Ma, Juan Zhou, Zhijian Song, Jinmai Zhang, Ke Wang, Boyu Chen, Dun Pan, Zhiqiang Li, Changgui Li and Yongyong Shi

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:142

    Content type: Case report

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  46. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is caused by mutations in serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene. The increased cancer risk has been connected to P53 pathway.

    Authors: Yu-Liang Jiang, Zi-Ye Zhao, Bai-Rong Li, Fu Yang, Jing Li, Xiao-Wei Jin, Hao Wang, En-Da Yu, Shu-Han Sun and Shou-Bin Ning

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:141

    Content type: Research article

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