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Table 1 Distribution of demographic and clinical characteristics among bladder cancer cases and controls from the Women's Health Initiative

From: Mediation by differential DNA methylation of known associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk

  Cases (n = 412) Controls (n = 424)
WHI Arm (N, %)
 OS 213 (52%) 218 (52%)
 CT: HT and DM 24 (6%) 26 (6%)
 CT: HT only 55 (13%) 56 (13%)
 CT: DM only 120 (29%) 124 (29%)
Age (N, %)
  < 50–59 97 (24%) 100 (24%)
 60–69 194 (47%) 203 (48%)
 70–79+ 121 (29%) 121 (28%)
Year of Enrollment (N, %)
 1994 - 1995 105 (25%) 109 (26%)
 1996 125 (30%) 127 (30%)
 1997 114 (28%) 116 (27%)
 1998 68 (17%) 72 (17%)
DNA Extraction Method (N, %)
 5-prime 397 (96%) 408 (96%)
 Phenol 15 (4%) 16 (4%)
Race/Ethnicity (N, %)
 Asian/Pacific Islander 4 (1%) 12 (3%)
 Black/African American 24 (6%) 40 (9%)
 Hispanic 7 (2%) 16 (4%)
 Non-Hispanic White 375 (91%) 349 (82%)
 Other 2 (< 1%) 7 (2%)
Smoking (N, %)
 Never Smoked 155 (38%) 234 (55%)
 Past Smoker 204 (49%) 172 (41%)
 Current Smoker 53 (13%) 18 (4%)
Pack-Years (N, %)
 Never Smoker 155 (38%) 234 (55%)
  > 0 - < 30 145 (35%) 137 (32%)
  ≥ 30 112 (27%) 53 (13%)
  1. Abbreviations: OS Observational study; CT Clinical trials; HT Hormone therapy clinical trial; DM Dietary modification clinical trial