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Fig. 1 | BMC Medical Genetics

Fig. 1

From: Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease: a Mendelian randomization study

Fig. 1

Mendelian randomization assumptions. The Mendelian randomization is based on three principal assumptions, which have been widely described in recent studies [18, 29]. First, the genetic variants selected to be IVs should be associated with the exposure (PD or α-synuclein in PD) (assumption 1) [18, 29]. Second, the genetic variants should not be associated with confounders (assumption 2) [18, 29]. Third, genetic variants should affect the risk of the outcome (AD) only through the exposure (PD or α-synuclein in PD) (assumption 3) [18, 29]

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