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Table 4 Multilevel modeling of individual and community risk factor associations with HDL-C dyslipidemia

From: Genetic associations in community context: a mixed model approach identifies a functional variant in the RBP4 gene associated with HDL-C dyslipidemia

  Model 1: Intercept only Model 2: + Individual variables Model 3: + Community variables
Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) p-value Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) p-value Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) p-value
Fixed Effects
 Intercept 0.39 (0.34–0.44) < 0.0001 0.003 (0.001–0.009) < 0.0001 0.01 (0.01–0.13) < 0.0001
 Individual-level variables
  Sex (M = 0, F = 1) 2.12 (1.38–3.26) 0.0006 2.10 (1.36–3.23) 0.0007
  Age (years) 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.5 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.4
  BMI 1.12 (1.08–1.15) < 0.0001 1.12 (1.08–1.15) < 0.0001
  Diabetes 1.28 (0.63–2.61) 0.5 1.29 (0.63–2.64) 0.5
  Hypertension 0.99 (0.70–1.41) 0.9 0.97 (0.68–1.38) 0.8
  Smoking 1.66 (1.10–2.51) 0.01 1.69 (1.12–2.55) 0.01
  rs3758539 1.40 (1.03–1.92) 0.03 1.41 (1.03–1.93) 0.03
 Community-level variables
  Prevalence of HDL dyslipidemia   0.52 (0.03–8.63) 0.6
  Population Proportion of Females   0.84 (0.54–1.31) 0.4
  Population Mean Age   0.73 (0.47–1.12) 0.1
  Prevalence of Hypertension   0.96 (0.54–1.69) 0.9
  Prevalence of Diabetes   0.83 (0.52–1.31) 0.4
Random Effectsa
 Community classification code (FSA) 0.02 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 Prevalence of HDL dyslipidemia   < 0.0001
 Population Proportion of Females   < 0.0001
 Population Mean Age   < 0.0001
 Prevalence of Hypertension   < 0.0001
 Prevalence of Diabetes   < 0.0001
  1. aValues represent variance