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Table 1 Phenotypic characterization of the study population

From: Genetic insights into fetal growth and measures of glycaemic regulation and adiposity in adulthood: a family-based study

Family relation Probands (n = 58) Offspring (n = 249) Other relatives (n = 79) Spouses (n = 48)
Trait Mean (SD) Range Mean (SD) Range Mean (SD) Range Mean (SD) Range
Body composition at birth
 Sex (men/women) 34/24 NA 118/131 NA 38/41 NA 12/36 NA
 Birth weight (g) 3495 (510.9) 2200, 4000 3573 (582.1) 1950, 5500 3622 (467.3) 2300, 4400 3466 (491.8) 1950, 4500
 Birth length (cm) 50.8 (2.2) 46.0, 54.0 52.3 (2.2) 45.0, 59.0 52.3 (2.3) 47.0, 59.0 50.7 (2.4) 42.0, 54.0
 Ponderal index 26.5 (3.6) 21.3, 36.2 24.9 (2.8) 12.7, 33.6 25.4 (3.1) 19.1, 36.2 26.6 (2.7) 21.3, 32.0
Body composition in adulthood
 Age (years) 67.8 (8.2) 43.3, 86.1 40.6 (9.0) 14.9, 73.0 48.9 (16.9) 19.7, 83.6 66.1 (8.2) 42.5, 88.2
 Weight (kg) 88.2 (17.7) 56.5, 153.0 78.6 (16.2) 47.5, 134.2 80.3 (16.9) 48.0, 124.0 78.0 (12.5) 57.3, 110.0
 Height (cm) 169.0 (10.7) 151.0, 191.5 173.1 (8.6) 154.0, 200.0 169.8 (9.3) 147.0, 192.0 165 (6.9) 152.0, 179.0
 Waist (cm) 101.1 (14.1) 79.0, 150.0 86.3 (13.9) 61.0, 128.0 90.9 (14.4) 63.0, 126.0 92.0 (11.4) 72.0, 118.0
 Hip (cm) 105.9 (10.5) 91.0, 155.0 99.6 (8.89) 76.0, 132.0 101.9 (11.4) 81.0, 137.0 104.1 (9.8) 87.0, 131.0
 Waist-hip ratio 0.95 (0.1) 0.79, 1.19 0.87 (0.10) 0.67, 1.17 0.89 (0.1) 0.68, 1.10 0.88 (0.08) 0.71, 1.09
 BMI (kg/m2) 30.8 (5.3) 22.3, 48.8 26.2 (4.85) 16.9, 43.1 27.8 (5.3) 17.9, 43.4 28.8 (5.2) 20.3, 40.8
 Fat free mass (kg) 56.5 (13.0) 36.3, 84.2 52.2 (10.8) 30.3, 86.0 53.7 (12.6) 35.8, 85.6 46.5 (7.6) 32.8, 66.6
 Fat mass (kg) 32.6 (11.2) 14.2, 79.5 25.6 (11.1) 3.76, 58.8 30.4 (11.6) 5.91, 60.6 30.2 (11.3) 12.0, 58.2
Glyceamic regulation in adulthood
  Probands (n = 28) Offspring (n = 246) Other relatives (n = 77) Spouses (n = 47)
Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l) 66.7 (37.3) 18.0, 160.0 43.0 (31.5) 5.67, 210.3 55.1 (40.4) 15.7, 253.0 52.2 (41.7) 18.3, 267.3
HOMA-B (%) 388.7 (315.8) 58.5, 1090 520.6 (361.5) 75.0, 3182 530.2 (306.9) 73.6, 1853 590.5 (444.5) 170.7, 2839
BIGTT-AIR 998.0 (874.6) 140.9, 1889 2608.0 (1364) 82.7, 9238 2705 (2032) 1261, 14,000 4593 (10884) 1244, 66,560
Insulinogenic index 26.49 (25.2) 7.20, 63.5 134.3 (422.2) 8.35, 5970 101.8 (117.8) 4.91, 815.2 95.5 (75.0) 15.3, 368.3
AUC insulin 4 h (pmol/l*min) 36,600 (30016) 14,350, 77,980 45,380 (32892) 12,120, 223,400 54,370 (30367) 8060, 125,800 68,500 (56029) 21,790, 329,300
Insulin sensitivity
 HOMA-IR 22.2 (14.7) 4.98, 57.9 10.8 (9.47) 0.95, 57.5 15.9 (20.1) 3.52, 156.3 13.1 (11.1) 3.90, 64.0
 Matsuda insulin sensitivity index 10.5 (7.3) 2.35, 26.3 10.5 (6.08) 1.50, 38.3 8.81 (5.6) 1.10, 24.7 9.26 (7.43) 0.96, 39.0
  1. Data is presented as means, SD and range for the four different types of family relation (probands, offspring, other relatives and spouses). AUC: area under the curve, BIGTT-AIR: index for acute insulin response, HOMA-B: HOMA for beta cell function, HOMA-IR: HOMA for insulin resistance