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Table 1 Clinical characteristics in statin-treated or untreated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to PON1 genotype

From: The gene–treatment interaction of paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphism and statin therapy on insulin secretion in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: Fukuoka diabetes registry

  Statin (−)   Statin (+)  
PON1 Q192R genotype QQ QR RR P value QQ QR RR P value
  N = 249, 11.7% N = 887, 41.8% N = 984, 46.4% N = 179, 10.7% N = 767, 45.7% N = 732, 43.6%
Male, n (%) 167 (67.1) 573 (64.6) 648 (65.9) 0.73 78 (43.6) 371 (48.4) 333 (45.5) 0.37
Age, years 65.2 ± 10.6 64.8 ± 10.8 64.7 ± 10.6 0.83 66.1 ± 9.6 66.1 ± 9.4 65.9 ± 9.7 0.91
BMI, kg/m2 23.8 ± 3.5 23.8 ± 3.5 24.0 ± 3.9 0.28 24.5 ± 4.1 24.3 ± 3.8 24.4 ± 3.5 0.84
Duration of diabetes, years 13.8 ± 10.7 14.4 ± 10.2 14.4 ± 10.3 0.68 14.3 ± 10.1 14.6 ± 9.7 15.4 ± 9.9 0.17
Current smoker, n (%) 52 (20.9) 182 (20.5) 212 (21.5) 0.86 27 (15.1) 96 (12.5) 113 (15.4) 0.24
Current drinker, n (%) 118 (47.4) 398 (44.9) 430 (43.7) 0.57 57 (31.8) 244 (31.8) 247 (33.7) 0.71
Leisure-time physical activity, METs·h/w 18.9 ± 17.5 19.2 ± 19.2 18.6 ± 17.9 0.81 16.4 ± 18.5 18.4 ± 17.5 18.9 ± 18.7 0.25
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 132 (53.0) 491 (55.4) 525 (53.4) 0.64 98 (54.8) 446 (58.2) 400 (54.6) 0.36
Past history of CVD, n (%) 47 (18.9) 169 (19.1) 187 (19.0) 1.00 58 (32.4) 232 (30.3) 223 (30.5) 0.85
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.41 ± 0.37 1.43 ± 0.37 1.41 ± 0.38 0.55 1.49 ± 0.36 1.46 ± 0.38 1.45 ± 0.36 0.40
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 2.99 ± 0.75 3.03 ± 0.71 3.02 ± 0.75 0.77 2.75 ± 0.68 2.70 ± 0.61 2.69 ± 0.62 0.52
OHA, n (%) 144 (57.8) 587 (66.2) 645 (65.6) 0.043 124 (69.3) 540 (70.4) 525 (71.7) 0.76
Sulfonylurea, n (%) 91 (36.6) 397 (44.8) 423 (43.0) 0.07 77 (43.0) 390 (50.9) 362 (49.5) 0.17
Biguanide, n (%) 69 (27.7) 291 (32.8) 346 (35.2) 0.08 73 (40.8) 287 (37.4) 291 (39.8) 0.55
α-GI, n (%) 32 (12.9) 105 (11.8) 91 (9.3) 0.10 25 (14.0) 109 (14.2) 91 (12.4) 0.58
Thiazolidine, n (%) 20 (8.0) 111 (12.5) 114 (11.6) 0.15 36 (20.1) 148 (19.3) 112 (15.3) 0.08
Glinide, n (%) 16 (6.4) 60 (6.8) 58 (5.9) 0.74 7 (3.9) 47 (6.1) 41 (5.6) 0.51
DPP4-I, n (%) 0 (0) 4 (0.5) 6 (0.6) 0.45 1 (0.56) 2 (0.26) 2 (0.27) 0.64
Insulin, n (%) 57 (22.9) 178 (20.1) 200 (20.3) 0.61 39 (21.8) 145 (18.9) 154 (21.0) 0.50
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD and n (percentage)
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, OHA oral hypoglycemic agents, α-GI alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, DPP4-I inhibitors of type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase