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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the northern Finnish, Canadian, replication Finnish, and replication Hungarian preterm cohorts

From: A study of genes encoding cytokines (IL6, IL10, TNF), cytokine receptors (IL6R, IL6ST), and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and susceptibility to bronchopulmonary dysplasia

  Northern Finnish Canadian Replication Finnish Replication Hungarian
BPD cases Controls BPD cases Controls BPD cases Controls BPD cases Controls
n 56 197 58 68 39 188 29 40
Gestational age, weeks1 27.5 ± 1.9 (24-30) 28.7 ± 1.7 (23-30)*** 25.9 ± 1.6 (23-30) 27.6 ± 1.3 (24-30)*** 26.5 ± 1.9 (24-30) 27.5 ± 2.0 (23-30)** 26.6 ± 1.8 (24-30) 28.6 ± 1.4 x 24-30)***
Gestational age <28 wk, n (%) 29 (51.8) 64 (32.5)** 48 (82.8) 32 (47.1)*** 30 (76.9) 88 (46.8)** 19 (65.5) 6 (15.0)***
Birth weight, grams1 938 ± 268 (495-1555) 1184 ± 313 (370-1850)*** 834 ± 221 (385-1420) 1162 ± 243 (630-1900)*** 878 ± 257 (440-1470) 1074 ± 308 (520-1970)*** 928 ± 226 (510-1500) 1179 ± 193 (650-1500)***
Birth weight Z-score1,2 -1.4 ± 1.41 (-4.5-1.8) -0.9 ± 1.22 (-5.5-1.7)* NA NA -1.4 ± 1.38 (-4.0-1.1) -0.9 ± 1.3 (-4.0-2.6) NA NA
IUGR≤ -2 SD, n (%) 21 (37.5) 33 (16.8)** 11 (19.0) 3 (4.4)* 13 (33.3) 41 (21.8) NA NA
Male gender, n (%) 34 (60.7) 111 (56.3) 29 (50.0) 30 (44.1) 26 (66.7) 94 (50.0) 16 (55.2) 24 (60.0)
Singletons, n (%) 47 (83.9) 164 (83.2) 39 (67.2) 44 (64.7) 29 (74.4) 138 (73.4) 26 (89.7) 33 (82.5)
Severe BPD, n (%) 21 (37.5)   21 (36.2)   18 (46.2)   NA  
  1. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, ***P <0.001; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables, X 2-test for dichotomous variables; 1mean ± standard deviation (range); 2Birth weight Z-score describing fetal intrauterine growth. BPD cases were infants with moderate-to-severe BPD, and controls were infants with no-to-mild BPD. BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; NA, information not available.