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Table 1 Unadjusted associations between personal characteristics and respiratory symptoms during the first year of life for 221 white infants at risk for developing asthma. (CT and MA, 1998 – 2000)

From: Respiratory symptoms among infants at risk for asthma: association with surfactant protein A haplotypes

   Persistent cough (days/year) (%) Wheeze (days/year) (%)
Characteristic n (%) 0 1 – 7 8 – 14 15 – 21 22 – 28 > 28 p-valuea 0 1 – 7 8 – 14 15 – 21 22 – 28 > 28 p-valuea
White infants N (%) 221 109 (49.3) 30 (13.6) 19 (8.6) 12 (5.4) 10 (4.5) 41 (18.6)   119 (54.3) 49 (22.4) 17 (7.8) 7 (3.2) 6 (2.7) 21 (9.6)  
Gender                
   male 115 (52.0) 42.6 14.8 11.3 7.0 7.0 17.4 0.12 44.2 27.4 8.0 3.5 4.4 12.4 0.005
   female 106 (48.0) 56.6 14.3 5.7 3.8 1.9 19.8   58.0 17.0 7.6 2.8 0.9 6.6  
Maternal allergies                
   No 81 (36.7) 44.4 17.3 8.6 3.7 2.5 23.5 0.20 52.5 21.2 10.0 3.8 2.5 10.0 0.35
   Yes 140 (63.4) 52.1 11.4 8.6 6.4 5.7 15.7   55.4 23.0 6.5 2.9 2.9 9.4  
Maternal asthma                
   No 153 (69.2) 52.3 15.0 9.2 5.2 2.0 16.3 0.02 57.2 23.7 7.9 2.6 0.7 7.9 0.01
   Yes 68 (30.7) 42.6 10.3 7.4 5.9 10.3 23.5   47.8 19.4 7.5 4.5 7.5 13.4  
Daycare (starting age in months)                
   1 – 5 43 (19.6) 48.8 14.0 9.3 2.3 7.0 18.6 0.26 55.8 14.0 11.6 2.3 4.6 11.6 0.45
   6 – 12 21 (9.6) 57.1 9.5 19.0 4.8 0.0 9.5   55.0 30.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.5  
   None in first year 155 (70.8) 49.0 14.2 6.4 6.4 4.5 19.4   53.9 24.0 6.5 3.9 2.6 9.1  
Breast feeding (duration in months)                
   None 49 (22.3) 53.1 14.3 6.1 4.1 0.0 22.4 0.25 49.0 18.4 10.2 2.0 6.1 14.3 0.15
   1 – 5 57 (25.9) 49.1 19.3 3.5 7.0 5.3 15.8   57.9 19.3 3.5 3.5 1.8 14.0  
   6 – 12 114 (51.8) 47.4 10.5 12.3 5.3 6.1 18.4   54.5 25.9 8.9 3.6 1.8 5.4  
ETS                
   No 197 (89.6) 48.7 12.2 9.6 5.6 4.6 19.3 0.19 55.4 20.5 8.7 3.1 3.1 9.2 0.38
   Yes 23 (10.4) 52.2 26.1 0.0 4.4 4.4 13.0   43.5 39.1 0.0 4.4 0.0 13.0  
  1. ap-values from test for trend: Cochran-Armitage exact test (1-sided) for gender, maternal allergies, maternal asthma, Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); Somer's D statistic (1-sided) for age when starting daycare and duration of breastfeeding. Significant p-values (p < 0.05) in bold-face type.