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Table 2 Differential gene expression of Caco-2 cells cocultured with EcN.

From: The host response to the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917: Specific up-regulation of the proinflammatory chemokine MCP-1

    Fold changea  
Functional category Gene symbol GB Acc. No.b Chip 1 Chip 2 Description and/or putative function
Immune response MCP-1 (CCL2) S69738.1 11.1 3.1 Enhances the inflammatory response, upregulated by IL1α and TNFα
  CD9 NM_001769.1 1.7 3.6 Involved in platelet activation and aggregation; expressed in hematopoetic and epithelial cells
  MIP-2α (CXCL2) M57731.1 4.4 8.1 Produced by activated monocytes, expressed at inflammation sites, up-regulated by IL1α and TNFα
  MIP-2β (CXCL3) NM_002090.1 6.5 10.4 Plays a role in inflammation, autocrine effect on endothelial cells
  NK4 NM_004221.1 -1.7 -2.5 May play a role in lymphocyte acitivation, angiogenesis inhibitor, putative therapeutic agent for gastric cancer
Signaling AGT NM_000029.1 1.7 2.6 Serine protease inhibitor
  CNIH NM_005776.1 2.6 6.9 EGF-signaling in oocyte
  DUSP5 U16996.1 13.1 3.4 Hydrolase, negative feedback role in IL-2 signaling, deactivation of mitogen- or stress-activated protein kinases
  ID2 NM_002166.1 2.8 4.2 Essential for constitution of the intestinal mucosal barrier, is downregulated by TGFβ
  IFNGR2 NM_005534.1 1.8 2.4 Protein translocator
  NFκBIA AI078167 6.3 3.3 Downregulation of NF-κB activity, contributed in Crohn's disease
  NFκBIE NM_004556.1 3.3 2.1 Inhibits NF-κB
  PRDX4 NM_006406.1 1.7 3.6 Regulates the activation of NF-κB by modulation of IκBα phosphorylation
  DDIT (RTP801) NM_019058.1 20.9 4.0 HIF-1α responsive proapoptotic protein
  TNFαIP3 NM_006290.1 4.3 3.3 Interacts with NAF1 and inhibits TNF-induced NF-κB dependent gene expression
  SFN X57348 -1.6 -2.2 Exonuclease specific for small oligoribonucleotides, sensitive epithelial marker
Transcription and translation ELF3 U73844.1 3.3 1.8 Epithelial specific ets transcription factor, regulates MIP3α expression which is NF-κB dependent
  ILF3 BC003086.1 -4.3 -2.0 May faciliate ds RNA-regulated gene expression
  TIEG NM_005655.1 2.5 44.7 Krüppel-like transcription factor, up-regulated by TGFβ
  XBP1 NM_005080.1 2.5 2.7 May act as transcription factor in B-cells
Apoptosis BNIP3 U15174.1 3.0 2.7 Apoptosis inducing protein, binding to BCL2
Differentiation NDRG1 NM_006096.1 2.4 6.8 Growth inhibitory role, induced app. 20 × during in vitro differentiation of Caco-2
Proliferation EMP3 NM_001425.1 -2.2 -4.4 Probably involved in cell proliferation
  VEGF H95344 2.1 2.2 Induced by mek1, role of vascular endothelial growth factor in IBD
  1. a Fold change is the factor of mRNA regulation from EcN-treated cells and non-treated cells according to the signal values itself and to the change value from Affymetrix analysis software. Minus fold change values indicate genes with decreased transcription. Results have been performed by two independent hybridization experiments (Chip 1, Chip 2).
  2. b GB Acc. No. indicates GenBank accession number.