Gene expression of MCP-1 and MIP-2α in Lovo cells. Validation of mRNA expression levels of Lovo cells after 6 hours coculture with E. coli MG1655 (+ K12) or EcN (+ EcN). Relative mRNA expression levels for MCP-1, MIP-2α and RPS-9 (as internal control) were analyzed in duplicate real-time RT-PCR assays. Relative mRNA amounts were normalized with respect to expression levels of untreated Lovo cells (fold change = 1). The figure is representative of three independent experiments. MCP-1 indicates chemoattractant protein-1 ligand 2; MIP-2α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 alpha.