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Table 1 Characteristics of 1052 urban Ghanaians

From: The TCF7L2 rs7903146 (T) allele is associated with type 2 diabetes in urban Ghana: a hospital-based case–control study

Characteristics Controls Type 2 diabetes P
N 377 675  
Age (years) 38.8 ± 14.8 54.7 ± 13.4 <0.001
Sex (female) 76.4 (288) 74.7 (504) 0.50
Residence (Kumasi metropolitan area) 79.3 (299) 70.8 (476) 0.003
Ethnic group (Akan) 84.4 (318) 87.7 (592) 0.11
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 116.0 ± 11.3 138.3 ± 23.9 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.0 ± 7.5 85.1 ± 12.1 <0.001
Urinary albumin (mg/l) 9.0 (4.9–150.1) 14.5 (3.3–150.1) <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 81.5 ± 12.1 91.1 ± 12.2 <0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.6 ± 4.9 25.9 ± 5.1 <0.001
Diabetes family history (yes) 26.3 (99) 57.9 (391) <0.001
Hypertension family history (yes) 30.2 (114) 40.7 (275) <0.001
Smoking status (ever) a 3.7 (14) 7.3 (49) 0.02
Formal education (none) 10.9 (41) 35.7 (240) <0.001
Occupation    
Public servant 27.4 (103) 6.5 (44)  
Trader 25.0 (94) 29.5 (198)  
Farmer 3.2 (12) 9.7 (65)  
Else 34.6 (130) 17.4 (117)  
Unemployed 9.8 (37) 36.9 (248) <0.001
  1. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviation, median (range) or % (n). a, include current and quit smoking.