c.-22T>C mutation resulted in increased reporter activity in hepatoma cell lines . The promoter region of the GALK1 gene was cloned into pGL3-Basic, and the nucleotides at positions c.-179, c.-27, and c.-22 are indicated. Each construct was transfected into HepG2 and Hep3B cells five times in duplicate, and dual luciferase assays were performed. The mean luciferase activities, normalized for cell transfection efficiencies, were calculated relative to the activity of the wild type construct (wt, set as 100). Standard deviations are indicated. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01, significantly different between transfected cell lines and wild type by paired t-tests.